The M.A. in Comparative Literature is aimed at providing students with a solid basis in the discipline of comparative literature, and advanced training in at least two national literatures, languages, and cultures. At the end of four semesters, students must demonstrate a competency in at least two foreign languages as well as in English. Latin is required for students specializing in European and/or American literatures before 1800. Competence in the languages offered is measured either by the successful completion of one advanced course in the literature of each of the languages chosen or by passing an examination administered by the program in comparative literature with the assistance of an expert in the language concerned. This choice is intended to provide for languages that may not be taught in regular departments.